Μελέτη των υλικών και της τεχνικής κατασκευής της μεταβυζαντινής εικόνας «ο Δείπνος ο Μυστικός» του Μιχαήλ ΔαμασκηνούPart of : Δελτίον της Χριστιανικής Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας ; Vol.37, 1997, pages 151-166
Psysiochemical Study of the Construction Techniques and Material Used in the 16th-Century Post-Byzantine Icon «The Last Supper» by Michel Damaskinos
The paper discusses the creative process followed byMichael Damaskinos in executing his work entitled «TheLast Supper», as revealed by physiochemical analysis ofthe materials and the manner of their use. The panel icon(109 χ 84 χ 2.8 cm), probably painted c. 1590, belongs tothe Christian Art Collection of the Saint Catherine of theSinaites and is exhibited in the church of Saint Catherineat Herakleion, Crete.The analytical techniques applied included optical diagnostic methods, with the use of ultra-violet and infra-redradiation, as well as X-ray (black-and-white and colourinfra-red photography, infra-red reflectography, X-ray radiography and optical microscopy) and physiochemicalmethods such as spot tests, microchemical techniques,staining tests in cross sections, electron microprobe analysis, infra-red spectroscopy, gas chromatography and Xray diffraction. The findings are presented below:The panel is constructed of three boards of fir wood,joined by handmade, angled iron nails and reinforced bythree struts of fir. A layer of linen textile was stuck to thefront surface with animal glue and coated with gesso prepared from gypsum and animal glue. The preliminarysketch was painted by a brush dipped in green earth pigment. The paint layers consist of the pigments composingMichael Damaskinos's palette: white lead, white chalk,ochre, sienna, yellow massicot, minium, cinnabar, red lake,azurite, blue indigo, malachite, green earth and animalblack. The fixative was egg yolk, though the use of a smallamount of linseed oil cannot be excluded. The colour ofthe underlayer of the flesh is achieved by mixing umber,ochre, green earth, cinnabar, minium or massicot, whitelead and bone black. The flesh planes are modelled in amixture of white lead, white chalk, ochre, cinnabar andmalachite. The blue underlayer of the robes is a mixture ofazurite, green earth and white chalk. The orange-redtunics, curtains and garments are of cinnabar, while thered surfaces are executed in a mixture of massicot, cinnabar, white lead, azurite and red lake. A mixture of ochre orsienna with minium, red lake and green earth was used forrendering the yellowish-brown tones of the garments,while a mixture of red lake and white lead was used foradditional modelling of the drapery. Preliminary analysisof the varnish using gas chromotography shows that itcontains neither colophony (rosin) nor mastic.